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液压挖掘机的故障判断有哪些?

文章作者:必赢亚州官网 发布日期:2020-09-07   来源:www.bluewebcreative.com
1、发动机转速下降
1. Engine speed drops
首先要测试发动机本身输出功率,如果发动机输出功率大大低于额定功率,如是在施工现场判断要从更简单的方法入手,首先看燃油滤芯是否堵塞,燃油路中是否有漏气的地方,燃油泵中的柱塞,喷油头,出油阀是否严重磨损,空气滤芯进气是否通畅,带涡轮增压器的发动机,涡轮增压器是否损坏,发动机是否快速高温,机油粘度下降,造成缸壁封闭不严压缩比下降,是否缸套组件磨损造成缸内严重串气,发动机气门封闭不严等,这些都是严重影响发动机功率的因素。 如果排除了发动机本身输出动力不足外,就要考虑液压泵的流量和发动机的输出功率的匹配问题了。
First of all, the output power of the engine itself should be tested. If the output power of the engine is much lower than the rated power, the simplest method should be taken to judge whether the fuel filter element is blocked, whether there is air leakage in the fuel circuit, whether the plunger in the fuel pump, the fuel injection head and the oil outlet valve are seriously worn, whether the air inlet of the air filter is unobstructed and turbocharged The factors that seriously affect the power of the engine are as follows: whether the turbocharger is damaged, whether the engine is at high temperature rapidly, whether the oil viscosity is reduced, whether the cylinder wall is not tightly closed, whether the compression ratio is reduced, whether the cylinder liner components are worn and whether the serious cross flow in the cylinder is caused by the wear of the cylinder liner components, and the engine valve is not tightly sealed, etc. If the output power of the engine itself is excluded, the matching problem between the flow rate of the hydraulic pump and the output power of the engine should be considered.
液压挖掘机在施工作业中,根据作业的负载要求,速度与负载(流量与压力)是成反比的,就是泵的输出压力和流量的乘积是一个常数,泵的输出功率恒定或近似恒定;如果泵控制系统出现了故障,就不能很好地实现发动机—泵—阀—负荷在不同工况区域优化匹配状态,从而使挖掘机不能正常作业,所以我们必须掌握各种厂家生产的挖机控制系统。如大宇的EPOS系统,加藤的APC系统,小松CLSS系统等;在处理故障时,同样是有简到繁逐一分析确认。结合现代挖机是机—电—液一体化产品,技术含量高,所以在处理故障时,一般先从电器系统入手,再检查液压系统,检查机械传动系统。检查液压系统时,从辅助油路—控制油路—主油路—控制元件逐步检查。
In the construction of hydraulic excavator, according to the load requirements, the speed is inversely proportional to the load (flow and pressure), that is, the product of pump output pressure and flow is a constant, and the output power of pump is constant or nearly constant; If the pump control system fails, the matching state of engine pump valve load in different working conditions can not be well realized, so that the excavator can not work normally. Therefore, we must master the excavator control system produced by various manufacturers. For example, Daewoo's EPOS system, Kato's APC system, Komatsu's clss system, etc.; when dealing with faults, they are also analyzed and confirmed one by one from simple to complex. Combined with the modern excavator is a mechanical - Electrical - hydraulic integration products, high technology, so when dealing with the fault, generally start from the electrical system, then check the hydraulic system, and finally check the mechanical transmission system. Check the hydraulic system step by step from the auxiliary oil circuit, control oil circuit, main oil circuit and control components.
2、工作速度变慢
2. Work slower
如果是使用多年的挖掘机,速度逐渐变慢,这属于正常磨损所致。主要因素整机各部磨损造成发动机功率下降与液压系统内泄,这样就一系列故障都表现出来了,由于泄漏造成内部能量消耗,产生大量热能,使整个系统迅速升温,液压油及发动机机油粘度下降,使整个系统产生高温,表现为凉车稍快越热越慢,这就需要全机大修,对磨损超限的零部件进行修复更换。如果是新挖机突然变慢,这就要先简后繁,从以下几方面检查:先查电路保险丝是否断路或短路;先导压力是否正常;伺服控制阀-伺服活塞是否卡死;分配器合流故障等;排除了其它可能性,拆解液压泵。
If the excavator has been used for many years, the speed gradually slows down, which is caused by normal wear and tear. The main factor is that the wear of each part of the whole machine causes the engine power to drop and the hydraulic system leaks internally, thus a series of faults are shown. The leakage causes internal energy consumption and generates a lot of heat energy, which makes the whole system rapidly warm up, and the viscosity of hydraulic oil and engine oil decreases, which makes the whole system produce high temperature, which shows that the car cools a little faster and the hotter it gets slower, which requires overhaul of the whole machine Repair and replace the worn parts. If the new excavator suddenly slows down, it should be simplified first and then complicated. Check from the following aspects: first check whether the circuit fuse is open or short circuit; whether the pilot pressure is normal; whether the servo control valve servo piston is stuck; if the distributor confluence fault; after eliminating other possibilities, finally disassemble the hydraulic pump.
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3、挖掘机无力
3. The excavator is weak
整机无力分几个方面:
The whole machine can not be divided into several aspects:
1、外部负荷大时发动机急剧降速,这就需要检查以下两个方面:
1. When the external load is large, the engine speed drops sharply, which requires the following two aspects to be checked:
要按前述所说的先检查发动机动力,接下来检查液压排量是否遵循恒功率输出。即在不影响速度的前提下,调整斜盘角度减小排量。
To check the engine power as mentioned above, then check whether the hydraulic displacement follows the constant power output. On the premise of not affecting the speed, the swash plate angle is adjusted to reduce the displacement.
2、部在负荷大时发动机不降速,并且系统速度正常;这就要调试系统压力了,由于各厂家使用的液压元件与液压系统不同所规定的各液压缸压力也不同,只要按制造厂商规定标准调试就可以了。另外如果在调整溢流阀压力调不上来时,并检查溢流阀处于完好状态时,这就要检查液压泵的调节系统,乃至液压泵的缸体,配流盘,柱塞等零部件了。
2. When the load is high, the engine does not slow down, and the system speed is normal; therefore, it is necessary to adjust the system pressure. Because the hydraulic components used by various manufacturers are different from the hydraulic system, the pressure of each hydraulic cylinder specified is also different, so long as it is adjusted according to the manufacturer's standard. In addition, if the pressure of the relief valve can not be adjusted and the relief valve is in good condition, it is necessary to check the adjustment system of the hydraulic pump, and even the cylinder block, port plate, plunger and other parts of the hydraulic pump.
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